This paper provides to the literature on the variety of the true residence appraisal expert witness. The present appraisal expert witness variety literature suggests that when the out-of-city expert witness overshadows the understanding and experience of the neighborhood skilled, the out-of-city expert is the distinct selection yet most lawyers foundation their appraiser choice on elements that are irrelevant to winning the case this sort of as ease, proximity to their workplace, proximity to the subject matter house, a client’s suggestion or the expert’s cost. The outcomes of this two-element social science analysis research point out that in situations in which there will be contentious valuation concerns or, the place the appraisal professional witness will be called upon to criticize the work of the opposing appraiser, it may be in the very best curiosity of the consumer and outcome of the situation to pick an appraisal skilled who is found outdoors of the appraisal solutions location of the opposing appraiser.

Preface to the Paper

Soon after practically twenty five several years as a genuine home valuation expert witness, this creator has observed that, in the majority of genuine estate litigation situations, legal professionals normally choose their appraisal skilled from inside of the common vicinity of the matter residence. Even so, this exercise is contrary to the literature on the expert witness choice method that does not tackle the place or geographic proximity of the skilled to the subject home as a appropriate concern (e.g., Couture and Hayes, 2010 Fried, 2008 Tirella, 2006 Strutlin, 1996 Cabaniss, 1997 Bremser and Mathis, 1994 Harrell, 1993 Champagne et al., 1991 Jones, 1955).

This paper explores the reasons why numerous lawyers pick a “local” appraiser and particulars compelling new analysis suggesting that, at the very least for essential or higher benefit instances, lawyers must appear to the ideal appraisal professional witness from over and above the general geographic location of the subject property and the opposing valuation expert.

Typical Rational for Employing the “Regional” Appraiser

A review of the appraisal skilled witness variety literature indicates a constrained number of cases from the secondary literature (e.g., non-peer-reviewed or magazine top quality) the place the employing of a “neighborhood” appraiser is proposed. immobilien vermitteln for picking the local appraisal expert witness consist of:

• Price personal savings
• Comfort and simplicity of meeting/interaction
• Customer feels comfortable with and/or has previously employed their local expert
• Expertise of microeconomic conditions, and earlier trends in the area as a basis for views about foreseeable future market circumstances and
• In which a jury will be influenced by the place the expert resides, grew up or went to faculty.

A generally stated disadvantage of an out-of-town specialist is the additional price of journey. Nevertheless, “the value can be worth it… when the faraway witness completely overshadows opposing counsel’s regional professional” (p. 567).

An additional drawback, when the out-of-town skilled is also a more prominent professional with greater qualifications, are larger expenses. The lawyer have to think about this practical consideration in the context of what costs the customer can reasonably bear, how long the action is likely to run and the expected use of the witness.,

In cases exactly where the local appraiser/skilled is a client’s suggestion, the legal professional must assess no matter whether the client’s tips is dependent on a wish to throw a friend some organization and/or desires to employ the service of the specialist (irrespective of qualifications) most probably to favor the passions of the consumer due to the fact of private or financial ties. Haig’s (2011) advice to counsel on likely alongside with the customer-picked specialist is:

“Keep in mind, it is the legal professional to whom the shopper will most likely give credit or blame for the end result of the litigation. As continuously famous, the expert often plays a important-if not the essential-position in the litigation approach. Appropriately, there are no substitutes for an legal professional performing his possess due diligence with regards to a proposed professional and for an attorney partaking in obvious communications with the client relating to the pros and downsides of any proposed expert” (p. 563).

Though not explicitly mentioned in the literature on the expense financial savings of a nearby specialist, the out-of-city appraisal expert could need to have additional time and related expenses to comply with the Competency Rule of the Uniform Expectations of Expert Appraisal Follow (USPAP) (2014-2015), particularly:

(a) compliance with rules and regulations that apply to the appraiser these kinds of as the State’s appraisal licensing legislation and

(b) “where geographic competency is needed, an appraiser who is not acquainted with the pertinent market qualities have to purchase an comprehending essential to produce credible assignment final results for the particular house sort and industry concerned” (p. U-eleven).

Referring in this segment exclusively to USPAP’s geographic competency, the Federal Rule of Evidence 702 demands that “scientific, complex or other specialised information will support the trier of truth,” and in that scenario, (b) “a witness qualified as an expert by information, ability, encounter, or education, may possibly testify thereto in the type of an view or normally… ” Rule 702 was amended in 2000 with the addition of a “reliability” factor. Underneath Rule 702 as amended, a qualified witness may possibly only offer expert testimony “if (1) the testimony is primarily based upon sufficient facts or data, (2) the testimony is the product of reputable ideas and strategies, and (three) the witness has utilized the rules and approaches reliably to the facts of the case.” For that reason, for the appraiser expert, the problem of geographic competence as it relates to Rule 702 has three elements: whether the appraiser competently considered the pertinent market place attributes, regardless of whether the skilled testimony is “based on enough facts or info,” and whether or not the specialist has “used the rules and methods [she employed] reliably to the details of the case.”

Whether the appraisal professional pleased the aspects of geographic competence will be decided as a precondition for admissibility. Even so, in most cases the troubles will go with the excess weight of the evidence instead of admissibility.

Acquiring geographic competency will not be an situation for the much more experienced/notable out-of-city expert who will be achieved in comprehension the industry traits relevant to the valuation issues.


The most thorough literature on appraisal professional witness choice does not advocate the selection of an specialist witness to be geographically proximate to the matter home. Nevertheless, the typical attorney favors the “local” appraisal specialist with the rationale being one or much more of expense minimization, legal professional comfort, shopper desire and earlier information of the subject’s community or industry.

There will be times when cost necessitates the hiring of a local appraisal specialist. In addition, there will be cases where an appraisal professional is required but, given that valuation is not the disputed issue, any further price for a non-nearby or better experienced specialist is not justified.